HAYWARD, Martinus Peter (1817-1904); HAYWARD, Johnson Frederick (1822-1912); HAYWARD, Joakim Cooper (1782-1864)
[SOUTH AUSTRALIA] The Hayward brothers of McLaren Vale and Aroona Station : a small archive of correspondence (chiefly from 1854) and family-related documents and ephemera (1823-1890s).
Martinus Peter Hayward (1817-1904) was the son of Joakim Cooper Hayward (1782-1864) of Hayward’s End, Stonehouse [in Gloucestershire]. A qualified doctor, he emigrated to South Australia on the Rajasthan in 1839-40. He was declared insolvent in the depression of 1843 and went back to England. He returned to Adelaide in 1846, serving as surgeon on the Phoebe. He combined a medical practice with property interests and became a notable member of South Australian society. He lived at McLaren Vale, served as a Justice of the Peace, presided at public meetings, and was an official at race meetings. In 1857 he and his family returned to England. Following the death of his father in 1864, Hayward became the owner of the Hayward’s End estate. (NLA)
Johnson Frederick Hayward (1822-1912) was the brother of Martinus Hayward. He emigrated to South Australia on the Phoebe in 1846 and immediately was engaged by the pastoralist Price Maurice to work on his sheep station at Pekina. In 1851 Hayward acquired a half share of ‘Aroona’, a property in the Flinders Ranges owned by Dr John Harris Browne and his brother. At the time, ‘Aroona’ was the most northerly property in South Australia and Hayward played a leading role in the development of the pastoral industry and in exploring the region. Mount Hayward and other landmarks in the Flinders Ranges are named after him. He sold his share in ‘Aroona’ in 1861 and purchased Canowie Station near Hallett, 20 miles north of Burra. He returned to England in 1864 and settled in Bath but retained an interest in Canowie until his death. (NLA)
CONTENTS OF THE ARCHIVE:
I. Manuscript letter. 15 February 1854. Martinus Hayward, Adelaide, South Australia, to his father Joakim Cooper Hayward, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. Per steamer “Australian”. 1 page, quarto. Covering letter for an enclosed bill of exchange for £63, ‘of which £53 is the balance due to you and £10 for Mary Anna [Mary Anna Sarah Hayward, 1814-1886] & Madeline [Magdalena Catharina Wiltens Hayward, 1820-1905]. Burra dividend paid in Decr. last. The Gigs are not yet landed, and I have not yet seen Paxton [William Paxton, 1818-1893] but I shall charge to him & myself jointly yours & Albert’s [Albertus Lemmers Ricardo Hayward, 1829-1889] expenses in purchasing cloth gigs & which I will send when I remit to Albert for his goods, but I am afraid they will not sell to pay for some weeks … Your affectionate Son, Martinus Hayward’.
II. Manuscript letter. 29 May 1854. Martinus Hayward, The Grove, Maclaren Vale, South Australia, to his sister Madeline [Magdalena], [Stonehouse, Gloucestershire]. 4 pages, quarto. Explains the bill of exchange which is enclosed, and the Letter of Attorney empowering his father Joakim (whom he calls “the Governor”) to receive the £80 on behalf of his sister Madeline and his brothers Fred (Johnson Frederick) and Charles (Charles Bland Hayward, 1831-190?]. ‘I expected Charles here before this, however as he has not come I shall send a duplicate Power to Fred for him and Charles to sign … Fred was here at the beginning of March and looked better than I have seen him for years. I had a letter from him ten days ago, in which he says I may expect Charles about the end of this month.’ Martinus then goes into some detail about various remittances he is sending to family members out of dividends he is receiving. ‘I also wish he [i.e. his father, Joakim] would buy me a really good telescope. I have explained to Albert the kind I want, and I dare say he could get it in Liverpool. I don’t care if it is second hand, we can see all the ships from the windows of our house, but they are from 10 to 16 miles distant. I would not mind £15 or £16 for a good one. Paxton and I made about £130 by the Cloth, and about cleared ourselves by the Gigs. I kept the large Gig with the velvet cushions, but I intend to sell it as it runs so very heavy. I have not yet had the accounts from Paxton for the goods he sent for on our joint account, but I think they will pay very well … I have heard nothing of Perret for years, but suspect he went to the Diggings. I don’t know where to enquire for him … I have two gentlemen on a visit here from Adelaide today, and if I lose today’s Post, I may be too late for the Steamer, and our Post Office is 4 miles away. Mary [née Mary Jane Bruce, 1834-79] too intended to write to Mother, but our servant is gone to Town for a few days and she is obliged to be in the kitchen. She desires me to thank you and Mother for your kind letters and to send her love to all of you, in which little Mary joins. The latter is very well and very forward in everything but talking, she can only say a few words, she has now nearly all her teeth. The meazles has been going the round of the colony, but as yet Mary has escaped them … Your affectionate Brother, Martinus Hayward.’
III. Manuscript letter. 21 September 1854. Martinus Hayward, Adelaide, South Australia, to his sister Mary Anna, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 3 pages, quarto. ‘About three weeks ago I received a letter from Fred (who had come down to the Burra) enclosing one from Jacob [Jacob Scott Hayward, 1818-1868] explaining how my father was situated with regard to Uncle Jacob &c &c, and on the 4th of this month I received yours of July 2nd … About the end of May I wrote to Madeline, in which I mentioned that out of my legacy of £80 I wished you and Madeline to be paid £10 each for March & June Burra Dividends, £10 to Elizabeth [Elizabeth Copper Hayward, 1824-1905] & £5 to Theresa [Maria Theresa Andree Hayward, 1823-1905], which Fred requested me to send them, and £15 to my father & Albert for expenses incurred in procuring the Cloth & Gigs; now under the circumstances I wish to relinquish all claims to the legacy in favour of my father, and accordingly remit 1st of Exchange for £50 to pay the above sums, and as agreed, the Telescope which I also sent for, it can be paid for from the Interest of Elliot’s debt, but as I want one for use only, and not for ornament, I have enclosed a paragraph from an old newspaper, recommending a new invention of pocket telescope by which you can see distinctly ten or twenty miles distant; if it is as represented, it would just suit me, & being small I dare say is cheap … I enclose also duplicate of the Letter of Attorney [see item IV below] signed by Fred & Charles, and a letter from Mary to my mother. I hear the Burra will soon be in full work again, they have now as many miners as they want … The large Gum Tree I spoke of in a former letter is about 36 feet in circumference at the bottom, about 25 feet high to the first branch, where it is about 16 feet round. Some of the branches are very large, and the highest about 100 feet from the ground; as regards the value of the tree, it is worthless, I would give it to anyone to remove from the ground but I don’t suppose there is a saw in the Colony that would cut through the butt. A visitor some time ago offered me £100 to deliver it in Adelaide, and I have 2 or 3 thousand tons I should be glad to give away, the 30 miles cartage coming so expensive. You will be amused at the account in the papers of the strike of the labourers & mechanics, the former not satisfied with 10/- per diem and the latter 15/-. We have a splendid show of fruit this season, we have in our Garden Apple Trees, Pears, Nectarines, Peaches, Apricots, Cherries, Almonds, & a large Orange Tree in the centre, also 200 Grape vines (various sorts), Gooseberries, Cape Gooseberries, Medlar, & Strawberries, the last named produce well when the season is wet, but gooseberries, raspberries & currants do not like the hot summers. We have also a great many fig trees, & some plums and damsons. I fear the Parrots will have most of the fruit, we saved very little last season from them, excepting grapes and figs, which they did not touch. Since Charles came here three months ago, he shot a good many, and I the remainder, altogether about 300, but still they appear as numerous as ever, I have tried posing (Strychnine) but it has no effect. I can’t get any good vegetable seeds here, and shall be glad if you will continue to send a few in each letter, I was glad to see the carrot & onion seed in your last packets, if you have any, please send a little rhubarb seed and good kind of cabbage. I have some splendid celery almost fit to dig from the seed you sent, we have a fine asparagus bed too. I can’t say yet when it is likely we will visit England, as my tenant at Clare is a good deal in my debt, he having bought the Inn there, and I am trying to sell the Brewery, in buying this place (The Grove) I had to mortgage it, not being able to realise on the Clare property … Sept 22nd. I have met with a party likely to buy the Brewery at Clare, so I intend starting for there today. I have only just received the full account sales of the Goods Paxton and myself had from England (£2600’s worth) and I find that my share of the profits on the whole including Cloth & Gigs will not amount to £100, in consequence of the heavy expenses, charges &c. Mr. Boord [Alexander Frederick Boord, 1814-1896], a neighbour of Fred’s, came into Town yesterday. He told me he saw Fred about 10 days ago, and he & Charles were well … Your affectionate Brother, Martinus Hayward.’
IV. Legal duplicate of Letter of Attorney (mentioned in item III, above), prepared by Adelaide solicitor W. A. Wearing, dated 19 July 1854. Signed by Martinus Hayward of Maclaren Vale, Johnson Frederick Hayward of Aroona, and Charles Byland Hayward of Aroona, the document appoints their father, Joakim Cooper Hayward of Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, as attorney to receive the legacies left to them from the estate of their uncle, Jacob Hayward of Beverston, Gloucestershire.
V. Manuscript letter. 25 February 1861. Joakim Cooper Hayward, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, to his son Johnson Frederick Hayward, Aroona, South Australia. 3 pages, octavo. ‘My dear Fred, I was very much pleased with your letter … I also feel particularly obliged to you (certainly as much so as they are) for your liberality to your sisters, for in fact it benefits me quite as much as them, owing to your generosity I am never called upon for pocket money or for Dresses. I was glad to hear Albert had delivered the sheep he had in charge in good condition at Dr. Browne’s [John Harris Browne, 1817-1904] residence. He, “Albert”, writes in very good spirits. I hope you find Charley more useful to you than formerly. The past year in England has I think been very unprofitable to the Farmers … Martin [Martinus] after mousing about for some months has settled down (I suppose for 3 years) at Ditcheat Castle Carey, Somerset. I was with him for a fortnight in October. He has a very convenient house & offices & a capital Garden with good Roads, good water & close to the Church, a sprinkling of Game & plenty of Rabbits. He is about 4 hours by Rail from here via Swindon or Bristol. I am very sorry to tell you of the death of Mr. N. Marling after rather a short illness, his loss will be generally felt not only in this Parish but in the neighbourhood. With love to yourself, Albert, and Charley, I am Dear Fred, Your affectionate Father, J. Cooper Hayward.’
VI. Manuscript letter. 26 March [after 1864?]. Martinus Hayward, Evans Hotel, Covent Garden [London], to one of his brothers in England [probably Fred, who returned from South Australia in 1864]. 2 pages, octavo. Discusses financial assistance (£500) required by their brother Jacob for the acquisition of a farm. Signed ‘Your affectionate brother, Martinus Hayward.’
VII. Exercise book (160 x 120 mm), containing approx. 20 pages of notes in pencil written by a member of the Hayward family (possibly Martinus or Fred?) in the 1890s, summarising a collection of family correspondence ranging in date from 1808 to the 1840s, with references to Surinam.
VIII. Joakim Cooper Hayward (1782-1864), Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 1823-1860. Group of mainly business letters and financial documents (bills and receipts), including correspondence from a merchant in Amsterdam (1840s), a legal document regarding the legacy from the estate of Jacob Hayward (dated 12 July 1854), and an envelope addressed to him, handwritten by his young daughter Mary Anna Hayward when aged 9 and at boarding school. (22 items).
The family background of the Haywards of South Australia is a complex and fascinating one, involving bitter rivalry for fabulous wealth obtained through ownership of slaves and sugar plantations in South America. This story is told in the substantial collection of Hayward family correspondence and other papers held in the University of Melbourne Archives, which has now been digitised. The following essay on the collection, written by Carl Temple, Project Archivist, is from the UMA Bulletin, no. 35, December 2014:
‘The Hayward Family Saga. “At this time (1802), Isaac Hayward, a Captain in the North Gloucestershire Regiment … was on active service guarding the south coast against an expected invasion by Napoleon. Riding one day on the South Downs, he met a lady, whose carriage had overturned. He stopped to assist and the result was that he married the lady.” … So begins the “Hayward Family Saga”, documented in over 200 letters and records, now available online together with transcripts. The lady in question was Maria Wilten (nee Lemmers), lately widowed and arrived from the Dutch colony of Surinam where she an d her late husband’s families had been prosperous plantation owners and colonial administrators for almost 100 years. To her marriage with the dashing British officer she brought her five children and their combined interests in several sugar plantations near Paramaribo, the colonial capital. The labour on these plantations was provided by slaves. The Hayward family was English West Country gentry, vulnerable to downturns in the rural economy. The fortuitous meeting on the South Downs lifted the family’s fortunes by capitalising on the lucrative and volatile trade in colonial goods. After the birth of their second son in 1808, Isaac and Maria Hayward travelled to Surinam, leaving their sons, Isaac (II) and John, behind in England with the Wilten children as part of an extended Hayward brood. This distance generated an extensive correspondence between the family members, concerning the operations of the plantations and family events, providing modern researchers with a detailed window into the world of rural Regency and late Hanoverian England. In addition to local gossip, fox hunting, dinner parties and other purely local goings-on, the letters reveal the stress created by “the year without summer” (1816) and the ongoing depression in agriculture following the end of the Napoleonic wars. Rural unrest and the suspension of habeas corpus are noted, as is the scandal of the Royal Coronation and treatment of Queen Caroline. In later years, there is the rise of the ‘radicals’ and the family’s involvement in the capture of rural machine breakers after the family’s threshing machine was smashed during the Captain Swing riots. The Hayward family letters are so rich in their documentation of this time that it is easy to miss the insight they provide into the long decline of Surinam’s plantations. For the rest of his life, Captain Isaac Hayward laboured to extract a living from the plantations, fighting the environment, difficulties marketing colonial goods in the context of widespread economic depression and the complex legal environment in which the plantations were tied. They also show how Isaac Hayward imported a steam engine from England to assist in production and his comments about the economic inefficiency of the plantations with larger numbers of slaves. The earliest plantation, Alkmaar, was acquired in the 1730s by Maria Lemmers’ step grandfather, Berlinborn Charles Godfrey. Her first husband’s stepfather, Johan Frederik Andree, in addition to managing up to 35 plantations, also acquired Frederikslust in the 1750s. The two short-lived Wilten brothers, Gerard and Martinus (step-sons to Johan Andree), founded side-by-side the Andreesgift and Pieterszorg plantations at the time of the French Directory and Terror. The plantations were bequeathed across generations of families and geographical distance, creating complex layers of ownership, often governed by wills of individuals long since dead. It was a situation ripe for litigation and not long after Captain Isaac Hayward’s death in 1827, this was precisely their fate. The difficulties began when Isaac Hayward (II) travelled to Surinam in approximately 1832 to claim his share in the estate of his late parents – Captain Isaac and Maria Hayward (formerly Wilten). At that time, various parties had an interest in the plantations, including his half-sister Magdalena and her husband, his half-brother Martinus’s widow, his half-brother Johan Frederick’s widow and infant child, his deceased half-sister Elizabeth White’s husband and children, his half-sister Anna Maria and her husband (and his uncle) Joachim Cooper Hayward, who had raised him and his brother John. Court cases in Surinam were soon followed by cases in the Netherlands, where acrimony was heaped upon bitterness in the context of the plantations’ declining returns and enduring financial difficulties. It could only end one way: with a family schism. What made the schism worse was that Isaac (II) and John had been raised by the same extended family that they now chose to sue, not just in relation to the plantations but also to obtain their inheritance under their paternal grandfather’s will. Several letters of great bitterness passed between the parties and, in the end, the uncles chose to no longer recognise either Isaac (II) or John. The failure of the legal suits freed Isaac (II) to pursue other interests and in 1852 he set sail with his family for the diggings in Victoria; in his baggage came these wonderful family papers. The Hayward family papers are much more than a saga of family love and loss across a formative period in modern British history. They also provide personal links to historical figures such as Jurriaan Francois de Frederici, Governor of Surinam 1790–1802, who made a career in the colonial army fighting Maroons: escaped slaves that established communities in the forests and who regularly raided plantations and urban areas. There are also links to Reverend Samuel Danforth, one of the magistrates involved in the Salem witch trials and an early supporter of Harvard University. The papers are rich in family and socio-economic history, allowing researchers to build a fascinating picture of this family across three continents and over four centuries. Whilst these letters provide an insight into a world that ended with emancipation in 1863, the slave plantations’ names can still be seen on Google Maps to the north and east of Paramaribo; long rectangles of land, some lost to the mangroves and barely discernible, others now taking shape as farmland or villages. These are the last physical remains of places so vividly captured in this wonderful collection, the Hayward Family Papers at UMA.’
Note: The National Library of Australia holds Papers of the Hayward Family (as filmed by the AJCP): ‘The papers of the Hayward Family filmed by the Australian Joint Copying Project include: a typescript copy of Johnson Frederick Hayward’s ‘Incidents in My Australian Life’ (c.1872), being an account of life on a sheep station 1846-1856; three journals kept by J.F. Hayward describing journeys to and from England 1858-1859; diaries of Martinus Peter Hayward 1863-64 kept on voyages between England and Australia; testimonial 1857 to M.P. Hayward as candidate for post of South Australian Emigration Agent in England, containing many signatures and a number of portraits of various members of the Hayward Family.’ (NLA)